Benelli put up quite a show at this year’s EICMA, unveiling a range of models for the 2024 lineup. Two noteworthy additions to their offerings are the Tornado 500 and the Tornado Naked Twin 500.

Tornado 500:

With its sleek design the Tornado 500 represents Benelli’s latest entry into the sports bike segment. Benelli says this agile and maneuverable motorcycle is crafted for all-around enjoyment, drawing on the technical foundation of the Tornado Naked Twin 500. Shared components include the frame and the proven 500cc engine, already a staple in the brand’s best-selling models.

Developed entirely by Benelli’s R&D and the Benelli Style Centre in Pesaro, Italy, the Tornado 500 inherits styling cues from its naked counterpart but evolves them for a distinct identity. The sculpted and dynamic fairing surfaces highlight the bike’s sporty character, featuring compact and contemporary shapes for a refined and modern aesthetic.

Powered by a 500cc parallel twin-cylinder, four-stroke, liquid-cooled engine, the Tornado 500 delivers a smooth yet responsive performance. With a maximum power output of 47.6 hp at 8500 rpm and peak torque of 46 Nm at 6000 rpm, this bike is designed for exhilarating rides. The updated engine complies with Euro 5+ standards.

Sharing the frame with its naked counterpart, the Tornado 500 boasts a traditional steel trellis frame, ensuring agility and responsiveness on the road and around corners. The suspension system includes a Marzocchi upside-down fork at the front and a swinging arm with a central adjustable monoshock at the rear. Brembo brakes, a 5-inch TFT color display, and modern features like Bluetooth connectivity and TPMS add to the overall appeal. The Tornado 500 is set to hit Benelli dealers in the first few months of 2024, with pricing and color options yet to be finalized.

Distinctive in design, the Naked Twin introduces a new headlight with a luminous signature formed by daytime running lights (DRL) that create a “T” shape when viewed from the front. This innovative feature separates the DRL from the central high and low beam modules, adding a unique touch to the bike’s appearance.

The 500cc twin-cylinder engine, updated to meet Euro 5+ regulations, undergoes design modifications for the Naked Twin. Changes to the clutch cover, transmission cover, exhaust system, and airbox optimize performance and comply with current regulations.

Supported by a tubular steel trellis frame, the Naked Twin emphasizes agility on the road with a compact design and a wheelbase of 1451 mm. The suspension system includes an upside-down fork at the front and a swinging arm with a central monoshock at the rear. Brembo brakes, 17″ aluminum alloy rims with ABS, and a 5-inch TFT display with Bluetooth connectivity enhance the bike’s safety and modern appeal.

Just like the Tornado 500, the Naked Twin is expected to arrive at Benelli dealers in the first half of 2024, with prices yet to be determined.

Tornado 500 Naked Twin:

Sharing its engine with the Tornado 500, the Naked Twin brings a fresh perspective to the “naked” concept, incorporating the same 500cc engine seen in popular models like the TRK 502 and the Leoncino 500.

During the recent Malaysian Grand Prix, PETRONAS unveiled its first ever racing motor oil for bikers – the PETRONAS Sprinta with UltraFlex™ technology. 

Developed in Turin, Italy, this engine oil ensures optimal performance, offering a protected, versatile, and agile riding experience. 

The PETRONAS Sprinta Racing 10W-50, a fully synthetic oil with an exclusive ester formulation and UltraFlex™ technology, caters to the diverse needs of high-performance superbikes, providing rapid defense and unparalleled agility.

PETRONAS says this innovation reflects its commitment to empowering riders with instant performance, defense, and care, allowing them to confidently pursue their ambitions. 

Distributed at the PETRONAS Grand Prix and available in the open market from November 13, 2023, through PETRONAS Shop and official PETRONAS Shopee page, this product will reach authorized workshops and PETRONAS Stations across Malaysia in stages. The recommended retail price (RRP) is RM76 for West Malaysia and RM77 for East Malaysia.

There is little doubt that helmet tech has evolved over the years, but the main point of evolution has been the shell, padding and extraction features. But Shark has taken it to an entirely new level with the introduction of the Aeron GP during this year’s EICMA. 

The new helmet transcends the conventional, positioning itself as a revolutionary leap in helmet technology rather than just another addition to Shark’s lineup. Its groundbreaking feature, an adaptive spoiler, is a game-changer in the industry, setting the stage for a paradigm shift in motorcycle racing gear aerodynamics.

Innovative Adaptive Spoiler Technology

At the core of the Aeron GP’s design is its adaptive spoiler technology, a feature that distinguishes it from conventional helmets. Unlike static spoilers, this helmet incorporates movable flaps on the spoiler that dynamically adjust based on the surrounding airflow. 

Developed through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, this technology optimizes aerodynamic efficiency by stabilizing airflow around the helmet during straight paths and turns. It goes a step further by minimizing turbulence behind the rider’s head, contributing to a more streamlined and efficient racing experience.

Aesthetic Evolution and Compatibility

While retaining Shark’s racing aesthetic with a sharp front design, the Aeron GP introduces an updated, slightly rounder shell compared to its predecessor, the Race-R Pro GP. This modification, along with adjustments to vents and other components, aims to enhance aerodynamics without compromising the helmet’s distinctive look.

Stringent Safety Standards and Market Focus

The Aeron GP adheres to ECE 22.06 and FIM Homologation standards, and will initially target the European market. While no official launch date has been confirmed, anticipation is high, with Johann Zarco suggesting its potential popularity in the racing circuit.

Adaptive Spoiler Technology:

The adaptive spoiler with movable flaps is the helmet’s biggest achievement and showcases Shark’s approach to aerodynamic design, marking a significant industry first.

Real-time adjustment to airflow optimizes aerodynamics in various riding conditions, reducing drag, enhancing stability, and potentially improving rider performance and safety.

Aerodynamic Design:

The updated, slightly rounder shell design suggests a deliberate effort to improve aerodynamic efficiency and overall stability, contributing to a comfortable riding experience.

Revised vents indicate a focus on maintaining optimal airflow while minimizing drag, crucial for both rider comfort and peak performance.

The advanced aerodynamics and stability offered by the Aeron GP could potentially revolutionize professional racing, improving lap times and rider fatigue management.

Future Expectations:

Despite the absence of an official launch date, high anticipation surrounds the Aeron GP, and Shark expects a rapid adoption by professional racers, making it a prominent feature in upcoming races.

Shaping the Future of Motorcycle Safety

The Shark Aeron GP helmet not only signifies a significant advancement in aerodynamics and safety for high-speed motorcycle racing but also prompts considerations of cost, complexity, and potential impacts on comfort and noise levels. Its suitability will depend on the unique needs and preferences of individual riders, particularly professional racers.

More than a piece of protective gear, the Aeron GP stands as a testament to the relentless pursuit of innovation in motorcycle racing.

One of the key talking points from Honda this year has been the E-Clutch technology. The tech is going to be available for a number of models and it is designed to make motorcycle easier and more accessible to more people. But what is it and how does it work?

The Honda E-Clutch seamlessly combines elements from quickshifters, manually-operated clutches, and Honda’s renowned Dual Clutch Transmission technology, resulting in a distinctive synthesis of these technologies. 

Remarkably compact, the system weighs a mere 2 kilograms, and both the clutch and transmission hardware maintain the conventional motorcycle standard, showcasing its adaptability for potential future applications.

Operationally, the Honda E-Clutch is user-friendly, eliminating the necessity for the clutch lever when shifting gears. Riders can effortlessly engage ultra-fast, consistent gear changes by simply manipulating the shift pedal. The clutch lever is rendered redundant during starts or stops, as the system activates upon engine ignition, ensuring smooth management and preventing engine stalls—particularly advantageous for urban riding characterized by frequent stops and starts.

Beyond enhancing enjoyment and convenience, the Honda E-Clutch introduces unparalleled flexibility. Riders can opt to use the clutch lever conventionally at any time. If the lever is used, the system swiftly reactivates after a brief pause at a specific engine rpm or after a short duration at lower engine speeds. The system can be deactivated entirely for a particular ride using the switchgear on the left handlebar, signified by an ‘M’ on the instrument panel.

Moreover, the Honda E-Clutch lets riders to customize the ‘operation feel,’ determining the force required on the shift pedal for gear changes. Three settings—Hard, Medium, and Soft – are available independently for upshifting and downshifting. The technology also prompts the rider to downshift, signaled by an instrument panel symbol, when it detects the motorcycle in a high gear at a certain speed.

The Honda E-Clutch orchestrates clutch engagement and disengagement by analyzing parameters such as vehicle speed, throttle opening angle, engine rpm, shift pedal pressure, clutch motor reduction gear angle, engine countershaft speed, and gear position. An actuator unit with two motors inside the right-hand engine cover operates the clutch, simultaneously controlling the engine’s ignition timing and fuel injection, resulting in seamless, jolt-free shifting in diverse situations.

Positioned to elevate the riding experience worldwide, the Honda E-Clutch system underscores Honda’s commitment, 75 years since its establishment, to advancing its legacy of rider-centric innovation.

Honda’s CBR500R, introduced in 2013 alongside its siblings, the CB500F and CB500X, is undeniably popular among riders seeking a blend of performance, affordability, and practicality.

Catering to younger riders making the transition from smaller bikes, the CBR500R provides an decent sports bike experience while maintaining reasonable running costs, making it ideal for both daily commuting and weekend adventures.

Over the years, the CBR500R has undergone significant upgrades, solidifying its position in the ‘light middleweight’ category. In 2016, it received a sleeker design, LED lighting, and improved front suspension. The 20YM model featured an even more aggressive makeover, including enhancements to the engine for increased performance.

For the 2022 version, Honda elevated the CBR500R with a major suspension upgrade, incorporating high-quality Showa 41mm SFF-BP USD forks, dual front discs, new lightweight wheels, and a redesigned swingarm. Now, for the 2024, the CBR500R evolves further with a sharper ‘RR-R’ style, engine updates, and advanced screen technology, making it even more appealing to riders.

The 2024 CBR500R boasts crisp new bodywork inspired by the CBR1000RR-R Fireblade, featuring LED headlights for a more aggressive aesthetic. The addition of a 5-inch TFT screen, operated through user-friendly left-hand switchgear, brings smartphone connectivity with Honda RoadSync, enhancing the riding experience. The twin-cylinder engine, equipped with a slipper clutch, now includes Honda Selectable Torque Control (HSTC) for improved acceleration.

Styling & Equipment

The CBR500R’s new bodywork, influenced by the racing DNA of the Fireblade, incorporates updated aerodynamics for enhanced steering and feedback. Dual LED headlights and a new taillight ensure optimal visibility, while the 5-inch TFT screen introduces on-screen turn-by-turn navigation and smartphone connectivity through Honda RoadSync.


The lightweight and robust chassis remains unchanged, providing nimble responsiveness. Showa 41mm SFF-BP USD forks, dual radial-mount four-piston brake calipers, and a well-balanced frame contribute to a sporty yet comfortable riding experience. The graphics update aligns the CBR500R with the CBR1000RR-R Fireblade and the new CBR600RR.


The lively 471cc twin-cylinder engine, now equipped with HSTC, delivers enjoyable power output with improved low-rpm acceleration. New PGM-FI settings optimize fuel injection for a more powerful acceleration feel, complemented by a distinctive exhaust howl. The engine’s design focuses on efficiency, with a silent cam chain and reduced friction elements for enhanced performance.

The 2024 CBR500R represents the evolution of Honda’s ‘pocket rocket,’ combining style, technology, and performance for riders seeking an exciting yet practical motorcycle experience.

Since its debut in 2013 alongside its siblings, the CB500F and CBR500R, the Honda CB500X has been quietly establishing itself as a competent and adaptable motorcycle for a diverse range of riders. The CB500X effortlessly transitions from short-hop commuting to weekend touring, thanks to its perky twin-cylinder engine, comfortable chassis, and distinctive adventure styling.

Evolution Over the Years:
Over the years, the CB500X has seen several upgrades, each enhancing its capabilities. In 2016, a first upgrade brought a larger fuel tank, improved wind protection, and adjustable components. The 2019 evolution introduced more sophisticated adventure styling, enhanced engine performance, and various chassis upgrades. The 2022 version incorporated high-quality Showa forks, dual front discs, a lightweight swingarm, and a redesigned front wheel.

Introducing the NX500:
For the 2024, Honda is maintaining the essence of the beloved CB500X while introducing a new name – the NX500. This model continues to build on its predecessors’ success with aggressively redesigned styling, premium technology, and a host of detailed upgrades aimed at capturing the hearts and minds of all riders.

Model Overview:
The NX500 brings back the historic “NX” designation from Honda, known for the single-cylinder NX650 Dominator. The “NX” in NX500 stands for ‘New X-over,’ reflecting its ability to excel on both roads and off-road trails. The latest model boasts an impressive update to its adventure styling, lighter wheels, and improved suspension settings for enhanced ride quality.

Key Features:

Styling & Equipment:

  • The NX500 features a sharp new adventure style that incorporates aerodynamics for improved stability at speed.
  • A new LED headlight and taillight enhance visibility, especially during night riding and cornering.
  • The 5-inch full-color TFT screen offers Honda RoadSync connectivity for turn-by-turn navigation and smartphone integration.
  • The left-hand switchgear is simplified, easy to use, and backlit for night-time visibility.


  • Equipped with 41mm Showa Separate Function Fork Big Piston (SFF-BP) USD forks and a rear shock with fine-tuned settings.
  • New, lighter weight cast aluminum wheels contribute to improved handling.
  • Dual 296mm front discs and Nissin axial mount two-piston calipers provide robust braking performance.


  • New PGM-FI settings improve low-rpm acceleration and overall power delivery across the rev-range.
  • The assist/slipper clutch ensures smooth upshifts and manages rear wheel stability during downshifts.
  • 471cc, twin-cylinder making 47hp and 43nm of torque
  • 6-speed transmission with slipper clutch

The 2024 NX500 will be available in Grand Prix Red, Matt Gunpowder Black Metallic, and Pearl Horizon White.

The Honda NX500 continues the legacy of its predecessors, blending versatility and adventure in a stylish package. With its aggressive design, premium technology, and thoughtful upgrades, the NX500 is poised to leave a lasting impression on riders seeking a reliable and dynamic crossover adventure motorcycle.

With a 17.5-litre tank and a fuel consumption of 27.8km per litre, the NX500 promises never ending adventures.

The CB500F, initially introduced in 2013 as part of Honda’s trio of CB500 models, has demonstrated the enduring success of Honda’s approach to crafting fun yet convenient motorcycles. This approach centers around a lively twin-cylinder engine housed in a straightforward, lightweight, and sporty chassis. 

The CB500F transcends its ‘entry-level’ categorization, providing a sporty riding experience in an approachable package. Its ease of management and low running costs make it equally attractive to those transitioning from a 125cc bike or downsizing from a larger machine.

In 2019, the CB500F underwent a redesign, acquiring bold lines, enhanced technical features, and, for the 2022 model, premium suspension in the form of Showa 41mm SFF-BP USD forks, dual front discs, and updated lightweight wheels and swingarm.

Fast forward to the 2024, and Honda’s evolution of the CB500 streetfighter formula continues with the introduction of the CB500 Hornet. This latest addition to the iconic Honda family follows the footsteps of the revered CB750 Hornet, boasting aggressive styling, cutting-edge technology, and a range of detail upgrades set to position it as one of Europe’s sought-after motorcycles.

The 2024 CB500 Hornet arrives with a fresh identity, marked by a new name, a contemporary aesthetic, and advanced technology. A prominent feature is the 5-inch TFT screen, operated through intuitive left-hand switchgear, offering smartphone connectivity via Honda RoadSync. The twin-cylinder engine, now equipped with Honda Selectable Torque Control (HSTC) and a slipper clutch, receives ECU updates to enhance acceleration.

The 2024 CB500 Hornet is available in striking color options:

– Matt Gunpowder Black Metallic

– Grand Prix Red

– Pearl Himalayas White

Styling & Equipment:

– The new streetfighter style emphasizes aerodynamics for improved steering and agility.

– Features a new LED headlight and taillight.

– A 5-inch full-color TFT screen with Honda RoadSync connectivity for on-screen turn-by-turn navigation and smartphone functions.

– Simplified left-hand switchgear for ease of use and nighttime visibility.

The CB500 Hornet’s aggressive design, inspired by its larger sibling, is defined by ‘Digital Dynamism.’ Beyond aesthetics, the fairing incorporates aerodynamic angles that contribute to linear steering and heightened handling agility. The LED headlight design ensures optimal visibility while a sleek taillight completes the lighting package. The 5-inch TFT screen, borrowed from the CB1000R, offers improved visibility in sunlight and supports customizable display patterns.

Tapered handlebars, a low seat height of 785mm, and purposeful aluminum footpegs contribute to the CB500 Hornet’s ergonomic design, accommodating riders of various heights. The fuel-efficient engine, coupled with a 17.1L tank, provides a remarkable range of over 485km.


– Showa 41mm SFF-BP USD forks with dual radial-mount four-piston brake calipers.

– Lightweight wheels and swingarm.

The CB500 Hornet maintains its lightweight yet robust 35mm diameter steel diamond-tube mainframe, offering responsive feedback to the rider. Showa 41mm SFF-BP USD forks and a tuned suspension ensure a smooth and controlled ride. Dual 296mm front discs with Nissin radial-mount four-piston calipers deliver precise braking performance.


– Twin-cylinder powerplant with Honda Selectable Torque Control (HSTC).

– New PGM-FI settings improve low-rpm acceleration and overall power delivery.

– Assist/slipper clutch for smooth upshifts and controlled downshifts.

The spirited 471cc twin-cylinder engine, receives HSTC for enhanced traction control. PGM-FI fuel injection, optimized ignition timing, and an assist/slipper clutch contribute to improved low-rpm acceleration and power delivery. The 24YM CB500 Hornet maintains its reputation for lively performance, with a peak power of 47hp and 43Nm torque.

The CB500 Hornet represents the next chapter in Honda’s successful 500 streetfighter legacy, combining aggressive styling, advanced technology, and rider-friendly features.

The Honda CBR600RR boasts an illustrious racing history, securing FIM World Super Sports championship victories from 2003 to 2008 and again in 2010, 2012, and 2014. 

It also clinched the Asia Road Racing championship from 2012 to 2016, the All-Japan Road Race championship ST600 class from 2003 to 2011, and in 2013, 2014, 2016, and 2019. Notably, its engine also powered Moto2 from 2010 to 2018. 

The 600RR left Honda’s European showrooms in 2017 as the industry shifted toward naked and adventure models. However, the middleweight sports category’s resurgence prompted its reintroduction in Japan and Thailand for the 21YM.

Now, the time has come for the purest road-legal sports bike to make a return. The new 2024 Honda CBR600RR is a rare gem, featuring cutting-edge MotoGP-inspired electronics and aerodynamics, embodying a class of its own.

Model Overview:

Honda’s iconic supersports machine re-enters Europe with its 599cc, inline four-cylinder engine producing 120hp @ 14,250rpm, equipped with an assist/slipper clutch and a standard-fit quickshifter.

The electronic package, derived from the RC213V-S and the CBR1000RR-R Fireblade, includes Throttle By Wire control, 9-level Honda Selectable Torque Control (HSTC), Wheelie Control, Rear Lift Control, and Cornering ABS, all managed by a 6-axis Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The chassis boasts a twin-spar aluminum frame, aluminum swingarm, 41mm Showa Big Piston USD front forks, and a Unit Pro-Link Showa rear shock.

The full-color TFT screen features Street, Circuit, and Mechanic modes, along with a Shift Up indicator and lap timer. Safety features include Honda’s Emergency Stop Signal (ESS) and Honda Ignition Security System (HISS). The 24YM CBR600RR is available in Matt Ballistic Black Metallic and Grand Prix Red HRC TriColour.


The CBR600RR’s 599cc engine underwent significant upgrades, enhancing camshafts, valve springs, and the crankshaft for optimal performance and durability. Intake, combustion, and exhaust systems were meticulously refined, with a focus on smooth throttle control through a 44mm throttle body and improved intake flow capacity. Valve timing adjustments and a 4-2-1 exhaust system contribute to increased efficiency and Euro5 homologation.

Engine Electronics:

The Throttle-by-Wire system, derived from the CBR1000RR-R Fireblade, ensures natural throttle feel and control. The electronic package includes 9-level HSTC, 3 default riding modes, and 2 User modes for personalized settings. The quickshifter facilitates rapid gear changes with 3-level adjustment.


Honda’s engineers focused on weight savings and performance enhancements, incorporating a Bosch 6-axis IMU for precise control of systems like HSTC and Cornering ABS. The chassis features a hollow twin-spar aluminum frame, adjustable Showa suspension, and a Honda Electronic Steering Damper for added stability.

Styling & Equipment:

The CBR600RR’s sleek design not only offers stunning aesthetics but also improves aerodynamics, boasting the lowest Coefficient of Drag in class. Winglets contribute to cornering stability and turning ability. The flexible riding position, LED lighting, and a full-color TFT screen with multiple modes add to the bike’s appeal.

The 2024 Honda CBR600RR marks the return of a legend to global roads, embodying the essence of a true road-legal sports bike with its powerful engine, advanced electronics, and captivating design.

Aprilia Malaysia unveiled the RS 660 Extrema alongside the launch of the SR-GT 200 Replica, showcasing the sportiest variant within the current RS 660 model range. The name pays homage to the Aprilia 125 Extrema, a high-performance eighth-litre bike produced between 1992 and 1994.

Boasting a remarkable dry weight of 166 kg, the RS 660 Extrema sets a new standard for the power-to-weight ratio, achieving 100 HP—a record in its class. This accomplishment is attributed to a range of refined standard equipment. Notably, a new and lighter street-legal exhaust system by SC Project, featuring a carbon silencer positioned on the right side (now situated above the engine), plays a pivotal role. The black anodized aluminum silencer bracket allows the removal of passenger footpegs, contributing to further weight reduction. Additionally, the front mudguard and the redesigned belly pan, both crafted from high-quality carbon, add to the overall weight-saving measures.

The RS 660 Extrema’s sporty character is accentuated by the single-seat tail fairing, replacing the passenger seat and enhancing the sleek rear design. However, the passenger seat is included with the bike, maintaining its two-up riding approval. In addition to the standard electronics found in the RS 660—such as traction control, cornering ABS, engine brake, engine map, and adjustable wheelie control—the RS 660 Extrema features software enabling the configuration of a quick shift in an upside-down arrangement. This allows for autonomous gearbox setup without replacing any bike components, making it versatile for both street and race versions, ideal for track days.

The distinctive white and red livery, inspired by sports aesthetics, ensures immediate recognition of the RS 660 Extrema. The introductory selling price for this high-performance model is set at RM 79,900.

The MotoGP weekend in Malaysia has once again lived up to its reputation as a hub for exciting launches. In conjunction with the Malaysian Grand Prix, Aprilia Malaysia unveiled the new Aprilia SR-GT Replica at an exclusive Meet and Greet event featuring the Aprilia Racing Team’s star riders, Aleix Espargaro and Maverick Vinales.

The Aprilia SR-GT, known as the “urban adventure” scooter, now makes a striking entrance with its special and super-sporty Replica version. Drawing inspiration from the aesthetics of the Aprilia RS-GP, the bike championed by Aleix Espargaro and Maverick Viñales in the 2023 MotoGP World Championship, the SR-GT Replica aims to rediscover the joy of daily riding.

The already sporty design of the Aprilia SR-GT takes on an even bolder appearance, turning routine city commutes and extended rides —well within the SR-GT’s capabilities—into exhilarating experiences. This scooter ensures you stand out at any moment, embodying the racing spirit inherent in every Aprilia vehicle.

Distinguished by a matte black color scheme, the Aprilia SR-GT Replica boasts red and purple graphics reminiscent of the elegant fairings on the Aprilia Racing factory team’s Aprilia RS-GP. This design mirrors one of the most meticulously crafted and technologically advanced prototypes on the MotoGP starting grid. The iconic Aprilia logo, running diagonally along the side and central tunnel, along with the passenger grab handle, now share the matte black finish.

In a nod to MotoGP aesthetics, the wheel rims are coated in black, with a noticeable red detail on the front wheel channel. Departing from the slightly knobby “all-terrain” tires of other versions like the Aprilia SR-GT and SR-GT Sport, the SR-GT Replica comes equipped with sporty street tread tires as part of its racing-inspired equipment package.

For enthusiasts eager to infuse their SR-GT Replica with a more personalized MotoGP touch, the racing numbers of Aprilia Racing factory MotoGP riders Aleix Espargaro and Maverick Viñales are included. This addition serves as a distinctive touch, bridging the gap between the SR-GT Replica and the thrilling world of MotoGP.

Priced at RM20,900, the Aprilia SR-GT 200 Replica offers an enticing blend of urban adventure and MotoGP-inspired excitement for riders seeking a unique and spirited experience on the road.